History of AI
- Human-level intelligence. Abstract reasoning.
- Linguistic intelligence.
- Symbol using and knowledge representation.
- Rule-following and logic.
Archetypal problem - Chess
The history of AI: A repeated cycle of excitement and disillusion
Slower than expected progress
biologically-inspired movement in AI, since mid-1980s.
slower than expected progress!
Conclusion: AI is hard
Will probably need both approaches
but no one knows how to combine them.
- Chess is easy.
Walking/running over rough ground is hard
(which adult humans, children and animals can all do).
Since mid-1980s - Biologically-inspired movement in AI.
AI probably now split 50-50 between "Bio-" and "Non-bio-"
(to use crude stereotypes that do not necessarily fit either)
Themes of Biologically-inspired AI
- Action Taker and Evaluator (AUTONOMY)
- Learning, Evolution, Self-organisation
v. Design, Search
- Robustness, Duplication, Multi-minds v. Brittleness (AUTONOMY)
- Non- (or Sub-) Symbolic v. Symbolic
- Sensorimotor v. Cognitive
- Animal Behavior, Cognitive Science v. Engineering (AUTONOMY)
- (Whole) Animals v. (Parts of) Humans
- Situated (in stream of IO) v. Isolated
- If human-level AI is too hard,
look for "Animat path to AI" (e.g. how nature actually did it)
- A-life v. A-animals, bacteria, insects, dogs, chimps, H.erectus and infants
- Symbol-grounding, origin of representations
Analysis v. Synthesis
Whole point of AI is division between:
- Analysis (biology, neuroscience, psychology)
- reverse engineering with no manual, very difficult.
- Synthesis (AI as part of cognitive science)
- try out models of mind by building them!
We know what the component parts are
(we can label them!).
Much easier to study the whole system.
Ironically, the more you allow machines learn and self-adapt
(especially evolution of neural networks
or program code
the more you run into analysis problems of the final result
- just like nature again!
The Classic-AI v. Bio-AI debate
AI is possible .. but AI won't happen:
The future of Artificial Intelligence
- My simple, short, popular-science summary of the history of AI,
emphasising the recent biologically-inspired trends.
Intelligence without Reason,
- A lengthy history of AI from the biologically-inspired angle.
Today the earwig, tomorrow man?,
David Kirsh, 1991.
- A reply to Brooks.
Why not the whole iguana?
- See Full reference
- A classic call to build whole creatures.
The animat path to AI,
- Dennett's call taken up by a whole new movement.
Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines,
Kevin Kelly, 1994.
- A mind-bending description of the type of machines we're
trying to build.
The failure of bio-AI
- AI is still not solved.
Why is AI so hard?
- Some more of my discussion of the history of AI,
and where AI is going: